Scientific Library

One of the key functions of the International Aloe Science Council is encouraging scientific research and development of Aloe vera. Scientists, doctors and other researchers around the world are continually performing tests and conducting research on the properties and benefits of Aloe vera. Articles will periodically be added to our library list below. Please contact Jane Wilson for more details.

Browse records in that    Search     
YearSorted By Year In Descending OrderTitleAuthor(s)Journal/SourceAbstract

Rodrigues D, Viotto AC, Checchia R, Gomide A, Severino D, Itri R, Baptista MS, Martins WK.Photochem Photobiol SciThe premature aging (photoaging) of skin characterized by wrinkles, a leathery texture and mottled pigmentation is a well-documented consequence of exposure to sunlight. UVA is an important risk factor for human cancer also associated with induction of inflammation, immunosuppression, photoaging and melanogenesis. Although herbal compounds are commonly used as photoprotectants against the harmful effects of UVA, the mechanisms involved in the photodamage are not precisely known. In this study, we investigated the effects of Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis mil) on the protection against UVA-modulated cell killing of HaCaT keratinocytes. Aloe Vera exhibited the remarkable ability of reducing both in vitro and in vivo photodamage, even though it does not have anti-radical properties.
2016Effects of Aloe barbadensis Mill. extract (AVH200®) on human blood T cell activity in vitro.Ahluwalia B, Magnusson MK, Isaksson S, Larsson F, Öhman L.J EthnopharmacolETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Aloe barbadensis Mill. (Aloe vera) is a widely used medicinal plant well reputed for its diverse therapeutic applications. It has been used for thousands of years in folk medicine to treat various conditions and the Aloe vera gel has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory as well as immunostimulatory and immunomodulatory properties. However, the mode of action is still unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was determine the effects of two well-defined A. barbadensis Mill. extracts AVH200® and AVE200 on human blood T cells in vitro.
2016Aloe vera and Vitis vinifera improve wound healing in an in vivo rat burn wound model.Lin LX, Wang P, Wang YT, Huang Y, Jiang L, Wang XM.Mol Med RepAloe vera and Vitis vinifera have been traditionally used as wound healing agents. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of aloe emodin and resveratrol in the burn wound healing procedure. Burn wounds are common in developed and developing countries, however, in developing countries, the incidence of severe complications is higher and financial resources are limited. The results of the present study demonstrated that neither aloe emodin or resveratrol were cytotoxic to THP‑1 macrophages at concentrations of 1, 100 and 500 ng/ml. A significant increase in wound‑healing activity was observed in mice treated with the aloe emodin and resveratrol, compared with those which received control treatments. The levels of IL‑1β in the exudates of the burn wound area of the treated mice increased in a time‑dependent manner over 7 days following burn wound injury. At 10 days post‑injury, steady and progressive wound healing was observed in the control animals. The present study confirmed that increased wound healing occurs following treatment with aloe emodin, compared with resveratrol, providing support for the use of Aloe vera plants to improve burn wound healing.
2016Hypoglycemic and Hypolipidemic Effects of Aloe vera Extract Preparations: A Review.Pothuraju R, Sharma RK, Onteru SK, Singh S, Hussain SA.Phytother Res.Obesity is considered to be an epidemic disease, and it is associated with several metabolic disorders. Pharmacological treatments currently available are not effective for prolonged treatment duration. So, people are looking toward new therapeutic approach such as herbal ingredients. Since ancient periods, different herbs have been used for remedy purposes such as anti-obesity, antidiabetes, and antiinflammatory. Among the several herbal ingredients, Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) is widely used to curb the metabolic complications. Till date, reports are not available for the side effects of A. vera. Several researchers are used to different solvents such as aqueous solution, alcohol, ethanol, and chloroform for the A. vera extract preparations and studied their hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects in animal and human studies. Furthermore, little information was recorded with the active compounds extracted from the A. vera and their anti-obesity and antidiabetic effects in clinical studies. In this review, we made an attempt to compile all the available literature by using different search engines (PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar) on the A. vera extract preparations and the possible mechanism of action involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.

Dick WR, Fletcher EA, Shah SAJ Altern Complement MedPURPOSE: Diabetes mellitus is a global epidemic and one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Additional medications that are novel, affordable, and efficacious are needed to treat this rampant disease. This meta-analysis was performed to ascertain the effectiveness of oral aloe vera consumption on the reduction of fasting blood glucose (FBG) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). METHODS: PubMed, CINAHL, Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, and Natural Standard databases were searched. Studies of aloe vera's effect on FBG, HbA1c, homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), fasting serum insulin, fructosamine, and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in prediabetic and diabetic populations were examined. After data extraction, the parameters of FBG and HbA1c had appropriate data for meta-analyses. Extracted data were verified and then analyzed by StatsDirect Statistical Software. Reductions of FBG and HbA1c were reported as the weighted mean differences from baseline, calculated by a random-effects model with 95% confidence intervals. Subgroup analyses to determine clinical and statistical heterogeneity were also performed. Publication bias was assessed by using the Egger bias statistic. RESULTS: Nine studies were included in the FBG parameter (n = 283); 5 of these studies included HbA1c data (n = 89). Aloe vera decreased FBG by 46.6 mg/dL (p < 0.0001) and HbA1c by 1.05% (p = 0.004). Significant reductions of both endpoints were maintained in all subgroup analyses. Additionally, the data suggest that patients with an FBG ≥200 mg/dL may see a greater benefit.
2016Effects of Aloe Vera on Spinal Cord Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury of Rats.Yuksel Y, Guven M, Kaymaz B, Sehitoglu MH, Aras AB, Akman T, Tosun M, Cosar M.J Invest SurgThe purpose of this study was to evaluate the possible protective/therapeutic effects of aloe vera (AV) on ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/R) of spinal cord in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 28 Wistar Albino rats were divided into four random groups of equal number (n = 7). Group I (control) had no medication or surgery; Group II underwent spinal cord ischemia and was given no medication; Group III was administered AV by gastric gavage for 30 days as pre-treatment; Group IV was administered single dose intraperitoneal methylprednisolone (MP) after the ischemia. Nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF1), malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were evaluated. Tissue samples were examined histopathologically and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) protein expressions were assessed by immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS: NRF1 and SOD levels of ischemia group were found to be lower compared to the other groups. MDA levels significantly increased after I/R. Treatment with AV and MP resulted in reduced MDA levels and also alleviated hemorrhage, edema, inflammatory cell migration and neurons were partially protected from ischemic injury. When AV treatment was compared with MP, there was no statistical difference between them in terms of reduction of neuronal damage. I/R injury increased NF-κB and nNOS expressions. AV and MP treatments decreased NF-κB and nNOS expressions. CONCLUSIONS: It was observed that aloe vera attenuated neuronal damage histopathologically and biochemically as pretreatment. Further studies may provide more evidence to determine the additional role of aloe vera in spinal cord ischemia reperfusion injury.

Sholehvar F, Mehrabani D, Yaghmaei P, Vahdati A.Dent TraumatolDental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) can play a prominent role in tissue regeneration. Aloe vera L. (Liliaceae) contains the polysaccharide of acemannan that was shown to be a trigger factor for cell proliferation, differentiation, mineralization, and dentin formation. AIM: This study sought to determine the viability of DPSCs in Aloe vera in comparison with Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS). MATERIALS AND METHOD: Twelve rabbits underwent anesthesia, and their incisor teeth were extracted; the pulp tissue was removed, chopped, treated with collagenase and plated in culture flasks. DPSCs from passage 3 were cultured in 24-well plates, and after 3 days, the culture media changed to 10, 25, 50, and 100% concentrations of Aloe vera at intervals of 45 and 90 min and 3 and 6 h. Distilled water was used as negative and HBSS as positive control for comparison. The cell morphology, viability, population doubling time (PDT), and growth kinetics were evaluated. RT-PCR was carried out for characterization and karyotyping for chromosomal stability. RESULTS: Aloe vera showed a significant higher viability than HBSS (74.74%). The 50% Aloe vera showed higher viability (97.73%) than other concentrations. PDT in 50% concentration was 35.1 h and for HBSS was 49.5 h. DPSCs were spindle shaped and were positive for CD73 and negative for CD34 and CD45. Karyotyping was normal.

Guven M, Gölge UH, Aslan E, Sehitoglu MH, Aras AB, Akman T, Cosar M.Biomed PharmacotherAloe vera is compound which has strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. We investigated the neuroprotective role of aloe vera treatment in rats with experimental sciatic nerve ischemia/reperfusion injury. METHODS: Twenty-eight male Wistar Albino rats were divided equally into 4 groups. Groups; Control group (no surgical procedure or medication), sciatic nerve ischemia/reperfusion group, sciatic nerve ischemia/reperfusion+aloe vera group and sciatic nerve ischemia/reperfusion+methylprednisolone group. Ischemia was performed by clamping the infrarenal abdominal aorta. 24 hours after ischemia, all animals were sacrificed. Sciatic nerve tissues were also examined histopathologically and biochemically. RESULTS: Ischemic fiber degeneration significantly decreased in the pre-treated with aloe vera and treated with methylprednisolone groups, especially in the pre-treated with aloe vera group, compared to the sciatic nerve ischemia/reperfusion group (p<0.05). A significant decrease in MDA, an increase in NRF1 level and SOD activity were observed in the groups which obtained from the AV and MP groups when compared to the sciatic nerve ischemia/reperfusion group. When all results were analysed it was seen that the aloe vera group was not statistically different compared to the MP group (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Aloe vera is effective neuroprotective against sciatic nerve ischemia/reperfusion injury via antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Also aloe vera was found to be as effective as MP.
2016Effect of Aloe vera on glycaemic control in prediabetes and type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.Suksomboon N, Poolsup N, Punthanitisarn S.J Clin Pharm Ther.WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Aloe vera (Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f., Xanthorrhoeaceae family) has long been used in folk or traditional medicine for diabetes. Several studies have been conducted on the effect of Aloe vera on glycaemic control, but the results appear inconsistent. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effect of Aloe vera on glycaemic control in prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted through MEDLINE, CENTRAL, CINAHL, Scopus,, Web of Science, Proquest, LILACS, HerbMed, NAPRALERT and CNKI to the end of January 2016 without language restriction. Historical search of relevant articles and personal contact with experts in the area were also undertaken. Studies were included if they were (1) randomized controlled trials of Aloe vera aimed at assessing glycaemic control in prediabetes or type 2 diabetes and (2) reporting fasting plasma glucose (FPG) or haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c ). Treatment effect was estimated with mean difference in the final value of FPG and HbA1c between the treatment and the control groups. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Eight trials involving 470 patients (235 each for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes) were included. In prediabetes, Aloe vera significantly improved FPG (mean difference -0·22 mmol/L, 95% CI -0·32 mmol/L to -0·12 mmol/L, P < 0·0001), with no effect on HbA1c (mean difference -2 mmol/mol, 95% CI -5 mmol/mol to 1 mmol/mol). Aloe vera may improve glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes, with a marginal improvement in FPG (mean differences -1·17 mmol/L, 95% CI -2·35 mmol/L to 0·00 mmol/L, P = 0·05) and a significant improvement in HbA1c (mean difference -11 mmol/mol, 95% CI -19 mmol/mol to -2 mmol/mol, P = 0·01). WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSIONS: The current evidence suggests some potential benefit of Aloe vera in improving glycaemic control in prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. However, given the limitations of the available evidence and the high heterogeneity in study results, high-quality, well-powered randomized controlled trials using standardized preparations are needed to quantify any beneficial effects of Aloe vera on glycaemic control.
2016Aloe vera: A review of toxicity and adverse clinical effects.Guo X, Mei N.J Environ Sci Health C Environ Carcinog Ecotoxicol Rev.The Aloe plant is employed as a dietary supplement in a variety of foods and as an ingredient in cosmetic products. The widespread human exposure and its potential toxic and carcinogenic activities raise safety concerns. Chemical analysis reveals that the Aloe plant contains various polysaccharides and phenolic chemicals, notably anthraquinones. Ingestion of Aloe preparations is associated with diarrhea, hypokalemia, pseudomelanosis coli, kidney failure, as well as phototoxicity and hypersensitive reactions. Recently, Aloe vera whole leaf extract showed clear evidence of carcinogenic activity in rats, and was classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as a possible human carcinogen (Group 2B). This review presents updated information on the toxicological effects, including the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, and adverse clinical effects of Aloe vera whole leaf extract, gel, and latex.
2016Mechanism of Aloe Vera extract protection against UVA: shelter of lysosomal membrane avoids photodamage.Rodrigues D, Viotto AC, Checchia R, Gomide A, Severino D, Itri R, Baptista MS, Martins WK.Photochem Photobiol SciThe premature aging (photoaging) of skin characterized by wrinkles, a leathery texture and mottled pigmentation is a well-documented consequence of exposure to sunlight. UVA is an important risk factor for human cancer also associated with induction of inflammation, immunosuppression, photoaging and melanogenesis. Although herbal compounds are commonly used as photoprotectants against the harmful effects of UVA, the mechanisms involved in the photodamage are not precisely known. In this study, we investigated the effects of Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis mil) on the protection against UVA-modulated cell killing of HaCaT keratinocytes. Aloe Vera exhibited the remarkable ability of reducing both in vitro and in vivo photodamage, even though it does not have anti-radical properties. Interestingly, the protection conferred by Aloe Vera was associated with the maintenance of membrane integrity in both mimetic membranes and intracellular organelles. The increased lysosomal stability led to a decrease in lipofuscinogenesis and cell death. This study explains why Aloe Vera extracts offer protection against photodamage at a cellular level in both the UV and visible spectra, leading to its beneficial use as a supplement in protective dermatological formulations.
2016A quantitative ethnobotanical survey of phytocosmetics used in the tropical island of Mauritius.Mahomoodally MF, Ramjuttun P.J Ethnopharmacol.With a net turnover worth of £181 billion, the cosmetic industry is a leading worldwide business with a very lucrative future. Nonetheless, due to recent concerns regarding toxicity of synthetic cosmetics, herbal products have come into the limelight of cosmetology. The tropical island of Mauritius has a well-anchored diversity of indigenous plant species which are exploited for various purposes but no study has been designed to (i) quantitatively document, (ii) assess the effectiveness, and (iii) study the incidence of adverse effects and perception associated with the use of herbal products for cosmetic applications.

Monakhova YB, Randel G, Diehl BW.J AOAC Int.Recent classification of Aloe vera whole-leaf extract by the International Agency for Research and Cancer as a possible carcinogen to humans as well as the continuous adulteration of A. vera's authentic material have generated renewed interest in controlling A. vera. The existing NMR spectroscopic method for the analysis of A. vera, which is based on a routine developed at Spectral Service, was extended. Apart from aloverose, glucose, malic acid, lactic acid, citric acid, whole-leaf material (WLM), acetic acid, fumaric acid, sodium benzoate, and potassium sorbate, the quantification of Mg2+, Ca2+, and fructose is possible with the addition of a Cs-EDTA solution to sample. The proposed methodology was automated, which includes phasing, baseline-correction, deconvolution (based on the Lorentzian function), integration, quantification, and reporting. The NMR method was applied to 41 A. vera preparations in the form of liquid A. vera juice and solid A. vera powder. The advantages of the new NMR methodology over the previous method were discussed. Correlation between the new and standard NMR methodologies was significant for aloverose, glucose, malic acid, lactic acid, citric acid, and WLM (P < 0.0001, R2 = 0.99). NMR was found to be suitable for the automated simultaneous quantitative determination of 13 parameters in A. vera.
2016Nephroprotective Effect of the Leaves of Aloe barbadensis (Aloe Vera) against Toxicity Induced by Diclofenac Sodium in Albino Rabbits.Iftkhar A, Hasan IJ, Sarfraz M, Jafri L, Ashraf MA.West Indian Med J.BACKGROUND: The present study was designed to evaluate the nephroprotective effect of the leaves of Aloe barbadensis against toxicity induced by diclofenac sodium in albino rabbits. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: Thirty-six healthy albino rabbits were randomly divided into six groups each with six animals. Group 1 served as the untreated control, group 2 was treated only with diclofenac sodium, group 3 with the nephroprotective drug silymarin and groups 4, 5, and 6 were treated with different doses of Aloe barbadensis, ie 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg, respectively after being treated with diclofenac sodium. Blood samples were collected after every five days up to fifteen days. Haematological and histopathological parameters were determined by using diagnostic kits. RESULTS: Results of haematological studies showed that use of the powder of Aloe barbadensis normalized the level of different factors eg, white blood cells (WBCs), red blood cells (RBCs), platelet count, packed cell volume (PCV), mean cell volume (MCV) and haemoglobin (Hb) values. Histopathological studies showed that Aloe barbadensis ameliorated pyknotic nuclei in the renal epithelial cells and reduced oxidative stress by increasing the level of catalase and decreasing malondialdehyde (MDA) level. CONCLUSION: These results have shown that Aloe barbadensis can normalize oxidative stress and can be used as an effective nephroprotective agent against drug-induced nephrotoxicity.
2016To comparatively assess the antiplaque efficacy of Aloe vera mouthwash and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash on de novo plaque formation.China S, Singh A, Menon I, Singh R, Sharma A, Aggarwal V.J Int Soc Prev Community Dent.OBJECTIVE: To comparatively assess the antiplaque efficacy of Aloe vera mouthwash and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash on de novo plaque formation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a randomized, single blind, parallel, controlled clinical study with 90 healthy participants, with mean age of 27.19 ± 12.08 years. After thorough oral prophylaxis, participants were instructed to discontinue mechanical plaque control. Participants were divided randomly into three groups; pure Aloe vera mouthwash was dispensed to the test group; control group received 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash; in Placebo group, flavored distilled water was used as oral rinse twice daily. Effect on 4-day de novo plaque formation was assessed by comparing pre-rinsing Quigley Hein Modified Plaque Scores were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance and Student's t-test. RESULTS: Post-rinsing control group showed the least plaque score which was comparable to the test group. Both the control group and test group showed significant difference with the placebo group.
2016Development of novel wound care systems based on nanosilver nanohydrogels of polymethacrylic acid with Aloe vera and curcumin.Anjum S, Gupta A, Sharma D, Gautam D, Bhan S, Sharma A, Kapil A, Gupta B.Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl.This study is aimed at the development of a composite material for wound dressing containing nanosilver nanohydrogels (nSnH) along with Aloe vera and curcumin that promote antimicrobial nature, wound healing and infection control. Nanosliver nanohydrogels were synthesized by nanoemulsion polymerization of methacrylic acid (MAA) followed by subsequent crosslinking and silver reduction under irradiation. Both the polymerization and irradiation time had significant influence on the nanoparticle shape, size and its formation. Polyvinyl alcohol/polyethylene oxide/carboxymethyl cellulose matrix was used as gel system to blend with nSnH, A. vera, curcumin and coat it on the hydrolysed PET fabric to develop antimicrobial dressings. The cumulative release of silver from the dressing was found to be ~42% of the total loading after 48h. The antimicrobial activity of the dressings was studied against both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. In vivo wound healing studies were carried out over a period of 16d on full-thickness skin wounds created on Swiss albino mice. Fast healing was observed in Gel/nSnH/Aloe treated wounds with minimum scarring, as compared to other groups. The histological studies showed A. vera based dressings to be the most optimum one. These results suggest that nSnH along with A. vera based dressing material could be promising candidates for wound dressings.
2016Anti-inflammatory and Wound Healing Activities of Aloe vera, Honey and Milk Ointment on Second-Degree Burns in Rats.Farzadinia P, Jofreh N, Khatamsaz S, Movahed A, Akbarzadeh S, Mohammadi M, Bargahi A.Int J Low Extrem Wounds.The aim of the present study was morphological and morphometric investigation of burn healing impacts of an honey, milk, and Aloe vera (HMA) ointment on experimentally induced second-degree burns, to approve the medicinal basis of its use in Iranian traditional medicine. A total of 21 male Albino rats weighing 200 to 300 g were divided into 3 groups of 7, including (1) control group, (2) positive control group, and (3) the treatment group that were treated with eucerin, silver sulfadiazine 3% and HMA ointment 5% respectively.After anesthetizing, the second-degree burns (1 cm(2) areas) were made on the back of the animals using a digital controlled hot plaque, and each group was treated topically, based on the time scheduled. Then, skin punch biopsies were obtained on the 1st, 14th, and 28th days of post-burn induction; processed; and stained using hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome methods. The results showed that HMA ointment induces cell proliferation, increasing the wound closure rate, blood vessel counts, and collagen fiber density in treated animals. It also reduced the wound secretions, inflammation, and scar formation. According to the obtained morphological, morphometric results, we concluded that the traditional HMA ointment, which is rich in therapeutic biomaterials and minerals, has multiple healing effects on burn wounds in rats.
2016The Effect of Aloe Vera Solution on Chemotherapy-Induced Stomatitis in Clients with Lymphoma and Leukemia: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.Mansouri P, Haghighi M, Beheshtipour N, Ramzi M.Int J Community Based Nurs Midwifery.Stomatitis is the most common complication of chemotherapy. This study aimed to assess the effect of aloe vera solution on stomatitis and its pain intensity in patients undergoing chemotherapeutic procedures. METHODS: In this randomized controlled clinical trial, 64 patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia undergoing chemotherapy were randomly divided into a control and an intervention group. The intervention group patients were asked to wash their mouths with 5 ml of aloe vera solution for two minutes three times a day for 14 days. The control group patients, however, used only the ordinary mouthwashes recommended in hematologic centers. The patients' mouths were examined by two assistants on days 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14. The intensity of stomatitis was recorded according to WHO stomatitis intensity checklists and pain was evaluated using Visual Analog Scale. The data were analyzed by SPSS statistical software, version 18. RESULTS: The results showed that aloe vera solution mouthwash significantly reduced the intensity of stomatitis and its pain in the intervention group compared to the control group. On the first day, no significant difference was found between the two groups regarding the mean intensity of stomatitis (P=0.178) and pain (P=0.154). However, a significant difference was observed between the two groups in this regard on other days (days 3-14: P=0.001 for stomatitis intensity, P=0.001 for pain). CONCLUSIONS: Aloe vera solution can improve the patients' nutritional status, reduce stomatitis and its pain intensity, and increase the patients' satisfaction. Trial Registration Number IRCT2014092819318N1.
2016Efficacy of Aloe Vera Supplementation on Prediabetes and Early Non-Treated Diabetic Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.Zhang Y, Liu W, Liu D, Zhao T, Tian H.NutrientsThe aim of this study was to evaluate evidence for the efficacy of aloe vera on managing prediabetes and early non-treated diabetes mellitus. We performed a systematic search of PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials until 28 January 2016. A total of five randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving 415 participants were included. Compared with the controls, aloe vera supplementation significantly reduced the concentrations of fasting blood glucose (FBG) (p = 0.02; weighed mean difference [WMD]: -30.05 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -54.87 to -5.23 mg/dL), glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (p < 0.00001; WMD: -0.41%; 95% CI: -0.55% to -0.27%), triglyceride (p = 0.0001), total cholesterol (TC) (p < 0.00001), and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) (p < 0.00001). Aloe vera was superior to placebo in increasing serum high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels (p = 0.04). Only one adverse event was reported. The evidence from RCTs showed that aloe vera might effectively reduce the levels of FBG, HbA1c, triglyceride, TC and LDL-C, and increase the levels of HDL-C on prediabetes and early non-treated diabetic patients. Limited evidence exists about the safety of aloe vera. Given the small number and poor quality of RCTs included in the meta-analysis, these results are inconclusive. A large-scale, well-designed RCT is needed to further address this issue.
2016Use of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) Technique to Study the Genetic Diversity of Eight Aloe Species.Ezzat SM, El Sayed AM, Salama MM.Planta Med.The genus Aloe comprises over 400 species of flowering succulent plants. Aloe leaves are used in the treatment of asthma, gastrointestinal ulcers, cardiovascular disease, tumors, burns, and diabetes. They are rich in anthraquinones, such as aloin, aloe-emodin, chrysophanol, aloinoside A, and aloinoside B. The various species of Aloe show chemical and morphological similarity and diversity, which depend on the genotype and environmental conditions. In a continuity to our interest in the genus Aloe, this study targets the authentication of eight different Aloe species, Aloe vera (A1), Aloe arborescens (A2), Aloe eru (A3), Aloe grandidentata (A4), Aloe perfoliata (A5), Aloe brevifolia (A6), Aloe saponaria (A7), and Aloe ferox (A8), grown in Egypt by using the technique of random amplified polymorphic DNA. Twelve decamer primers were screened in amplification with genomic DNA extracted from all species, of which five primers yielded species-specific reproducible bands. Out of 156 loci detected, the polymorphic, monomorphic, and unique loci were 107, 26, and 23, respectively. Based on a dendrogram and similarity matrix, the eight Aloe species were differentiated from each other and showed more divergence. Aloe species prevailed similarity coefficients of 54-70 % by which they could be classified into three major groups. Thus, this technique may contribute to the identification of these Aloe species that have great morphological similarity in the Egyptian local markets.
2016Evaluation of efficacy of aloe vera in the treatment of oral submucous fibrosis - a clinical study.Anuradha A, Patil B, Asha VR.J Oral Pathol Med.Oral submucous fibrosis is a chronic disease, treatment of which has largely been symptomatic. Aloe vera has immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, antioxidant, and antineoplastic activities. All such properties of aloe vera suggest the possibility of its use in the management of oral submucous fibrosis. METHODS: Seventy-four patients of oral submucous fibrosis were randomly divided into 2 groups. Group A patients were treated with systemic (juice) and topical aloe vera (gel) for 3 months. Group B patients were treated with intralesional injection of hydrocortisone and hyaluronidase for 6 weeks with antioxidant supplements for 3 months. Patients were assessed for reduction in burning sensation and increase in mouth opening, cheek flexibility, and tongue protrusion at an interval of 1, 2, and 3 months. RESULTS: Both the groups showed statistically significant improvements in all the study parameters at the end of study period (P < 0.001). The clinical response to aloe vera was comparable to that of intralesional injections of hydrocortisone and hyaluronidase with antioxidant supplementation. CONCLUSION: The study concludes that aloe vera can be an alternative, safe, and effective treatment regime in the management of oral submucous fibrosis. Long-term follow-up studies with larger sample size are recommended.
2016Favorable results from the use of herbal and plant products in inflammatory bowel disease: evidence from experimental animal studies.Triantafillidis JK, Triantafyllidi A, Vagianos C, Papalois A.Ann Gastroenterol.The use of herbal therapy for inflammatory bowel disease is increasing worldwide. The aim of this study was to review the available literature on the efficacy of herbal therapy in experimental colitis. All relevant studies published in Medline and Embase up to June 2015 have been reviewed. The results of bowel histology and serum parameters have been recorded. A satisfactory number of published experimental studies, and a quite large one of both herbal and plant products tested in different studies have been reported. The results showed that in the majority of the studies, herbal therapy reduced the inflammatory activity of experimental colitis and diminished the levels of many inflammatory indices, including serum cytokines and indices of oxidative stress. The most promising plant and herbal products were tormentil extracts, wormwoodherb, Aloe vera, germinated barley foodstuff, curcumin, Boswellia serrata, Panax notoginseng, Ixeris dentata, green tea, Cordia dichotoma, Plantago lanceolata, Iridoidglycosides, and mastic gum. Herbal therapies exert their therapeutic benefit via various mechanisms, including immune regulation, anti-oxidant activity, inhibition of leukotriene B4 and nuclear factor-κB, and antiplatelet activity. Large, double-blind clinical studies assessing these natural substances should be urgently conducted.
2016Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial effect of herbal root canal irrigants (Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica, Aloe vera) with sodium hypochlorite: An in vitro study.Babaji P, Jagtap K, Lau H, Bansal N, Thajuraj S, Sondhi P.J Int Soc Prev Community Dent.Successful root canal treatment involves the complete elimination of microorganism from the root canal and the three-dimensional obturation of the canal space. Enterococcus faecalis is the most commonly found bacteria in failed root canal. Chemical irrigation of canals along with biomechanical preparation helps in the elimination of microorganisms. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of herbal root canal irrigants (Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica extract, Aloe vera) with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The bacterial E. faecalis (ATCC) culture was grown overnight in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth and inoculated in Mueller-Hinton agar plates. Antibacterial inhibition was assessed using agar well diffusion method. All five study irrigants were added to respective wells in agar plates and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Bacterial inhibition zone around each well was recorded. Results were tabulated and statistically analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software for Windows, version 19.0. (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY. RESULTS: Highest inhibitory zone against E. faecalis was seen in NaOCl fallowed by M. citrifolia and A. indica extract, and the least by A. vera extract. CONCLUSION: Tested herbal medicine (A. indica extract, M. citrifolia, A. vera) showed inhibitory zone against E. faecalis. Hence, these irrigants can be used as root canal irrigating solutions.

Ghayempour S, Montazer M, Mahmoudi Rad M.Int J Biol MacromolApplication of natural materials in wound healing is an interest topic due to effective treatment with no side effects. In this paper, Aloe Vera extract was encapsulated into Tragacanth Gum through a sonochemical microemulsion process to prepare a wound healing product. FESEM/EDX and FT-IR proved the successfully formation of the nanocapsules with spherical shape by cross-linking aluminum ions with Tragacanth Gum. The therapeutic characteristics of the prepared wound healing product were investigated using antimicrobial, cytotoxicity and wound healing assays. Relative high antimicrobial activities with the microbial reduction of 84, 91 and 80% against E. coli, S. aureus and C. albicans, a cell viability of 98% against human fibroblast cells and a good wound healing activity with considerable migration rate of fibroblast cells are the important advantages of the new formed wound healing product.
2016Prevention of azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate-induced mouse colon carcinogenesis by processed Aloe vera gelIm SA, Kim JW, Kim HS, Park CS, Shin E, Do SG, Park YI, Lee CK.Int ImmunopharmacolThe preventive effect of a processed Aloe vera gel (PAG) on colon carcinogenesis was examined using an azoxymethane (AOM)-initiated and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-promoted mouse colon carcinogenesis model. Oral administration of PAG (200, or 400mg/kg/day) significantly reduced the multiplicity of colonic adenomas and adenocarcinomas compared with the AOM/DSS only-treated mice. In the mice treated with 400mg/kg of PAG, adenoma and adenocarcinoma development was reduced to 80% and 60%, respectively, compared to 100% in the PAG-untreated AOM/DSS-treated mice. Western blot analysis using colon extracts showed that PAG reduced the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), resulting in the inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression. PAG appeared to inhibit the NF-κB activation through the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. PAG also inhibited the expression and phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, which is known to connect inflammation and cancer. In addition, PAG inhibited cell cycle progression-inducing cellular factors, such as extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2, cyclin-dependent kinase 4, and cyclin D1. On the other hand, PAG increased the expression of Caudal-related homeobox transcription factor 2, which is known to be a tumor suppressor in colorectal cancer. These findings show that PAG suppresses colitis-related colon carcinogenesis by inhibiting both chronic inflammation and cell cycle progression in the colon.
2016The Effectiveness of Topical Anti-scarring Agents and a Novel Combined Process on Cutaneous Scar Management.Fang QQ, Chen CY, Zhang MX, Huang CL, Wang XW, Xu JH, Wu LH, Zhang LY, Tan WQCurr Pharm DesCutaneous scars (particularly hypertrophic and keloid scars), always follow after a dermal injury to the skin cutaneous scars leave a negative impact on people, both physically and mentally. Comparing to other surgical treatments, patients who do not opt for or can't opt for invasion therapy are more eligible for using the topical anti-scarring agents. In this mini-review, we have researched for and collected the data between October 2005 and October 2015, in PubMed and Web of Science, and identified those agents including silicone-based products, imiquimod, corticosteroids, 5- fluorouracil, bleomycin, mitomycin, and plant extracts such as onion extract, asiaticoside, aloe vera, vitamin E, and so on. Among them, corticosteroids, onion extrat, asiaticoside and silicone-based products have not only shown great effectiveness on cutaneous scar management, but have also been very popular in the commercial market. We have described the combined process by applying them, and also given the available evidence that has reported the effectiveness of this process. However, to establish the more effective treatment among different types of topical agents or their combined process, large, well-designed head-to-head comparisons between individual or combined preparations in relevant patient populations are urgently needed.
2016Tyrosinase inhibitory components from Aloe vera and their antiviral activityKim JH, Yoon JY, Yang SY, Choi SK, Kwon SJ, Cho IS, Jeong MH, Ho Kim Y, Choi GSJ Enzyme Inhib Med ChemA new compound, 9-dihydroxyl-2'-O-(Z)-cinnamoyl-7-methoxy-aloesin (1), and eight known compounds (2-9) were isolated from Aloe vera. Their structures were elucidated using 1D/2D nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectra. Compound 9 exhibited reversible competitive inhibitory activity against the enzyme tyrosinase, with an IC50 value of 9.8 ± 0.9 µM. A molecular simulation revealed that compound 9 interacts via hydrogen bonding with residues His244, Thr261, and Val283 of tyrosinase. Additionally, compounds 3 and 7 were shown by half-leaf assays to exhibit inhibitory activity towards Pepper mild mottle virus.

Clement YN, Mahase V, Jagroop A, Kissoon K, Maharaj A, Mathura P, Quan CM, Ramadhin D, Mohammed C.BMC Complement Altern Med. Among the 150 patients who reported use of herbal remedies/functional foods, soursop (Annona muricata L.) was the most popular; with 80.7 % using the leaves, bark, fruit and seeds on a regular basis. Other common herbal remedies/functional foods included wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum L.), saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. The most commonly used functional foods were beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.), carrots (Daucus carata L.) and papaya (Carica papaya L.) used by 43.3 % of patients; and these were mostly blended as a mixture. Herbal remedies and functional foods were used on a daily basis and patients believed that this modality was equally (32.0 %) or more efficacious (14.7 %) than conventional treatment.
2016Advances in the research of promotion effect of Aloe vera on wound healing and its clinical useSong XF, Chen XD.Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi[Article is in Chinese] Aloe vera has been widely investigated and used as folk medicine since ancient time. Biologically active substances in its gel include polysaccharides, glycoprotein, enzymes, anthraquinones or phenolic compounds, vitamins, minerals, and so on, which play important roles in anti-inflammatory response, antimicrobial, antiviral, antioxidant activity, immunoregulation effects, and especially in wound healing. In this paper, we review the advances in the mechanism and clinical application of Aloe vera and its extract on wound healing, so as to provide new ideas for the treatment of various kinds of wounds.
2016Beneficial Effects of the Genus Aloe on Wound Healing, Cell Proliferation, and Differentiation of Epidermal KeratinocytesMoriyama M, Moriyama H, Uda J, Kubo H, Nakajima Y, Goto A, Akaki J, Yoshida I, Matsuoka N2, Hayakawa T.PLoS OneAloe has been used as a folk medicine because it has several important therapeutic properties. These include wound and burn healing, and Aloe is now used in a variety of commercially available topical medications for wound healing and skin care. However, its effects on epidermal keratinocytes remain largely unclear. Our data indicated that both Aloe vera gel (AVG) and Cape aloe extract (CAE) significantly improved wound healing in human primary epidermal keratinocytes (HPEKs) and a human skin equivalent model. In addition, flow cytometry analysis revealed that cell surface expressions of β1-, α6-, β4-integrin, and E-cadherin increased in HPEKs treated with AVG and CAE. These increases may contribute to cell migration and wound healing. Treatment with Aloe also resulted in significant changes in cell-cycle progression and in increases in cell number. Aloe increased gene expression of differentiation markers in HPEKs, suggesting roles for AVG and CAE in the improvement of keratinocyte function. Furthermore, human skin epidermal equivalents developed from HPEKs with medium containing Aloe were thicker than control equivalents, indicating the effectiveness of Aloe on enhancing epidermal development. Based on these results, both AVG and CAE have benefits in wound healing and in treatment of rough skin.
2016Daily Ingestion of Aloe Vera Gel Powder Containing Aloe Sterols Prevents Skin Photoaging in OVX Hairless Mice.Yao R, Tanaka M, Misawa E, Saito M, Nabeshima K, Yamauchi K, Abe F2, Yamamoto Y, Furukawa F.J Food SciEstrogen deficiencies associated with menopause accelerate spontaneous skin aging and stimulate the ultraviolet (UV) irradiation-induced photoaging of skin. However, food compositions with the potential to ameliorate the UV irradiation-induced acceleration of skin aging with menopause have not yet been investigated in detail. In the present study, we examined the ability of plant sterols derived from Aloe vera gel to prevent the UV irradiation-induced acceleration of skin aging in ovariectomized mice. Skin transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was significantly higher in the ovariectomy group than in the sham operation group following UVB irradiation, whereas skin elasticity was significantly lower. Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation induced greater reductions in skin hyaluronic acid levels and more severe collagen fiber damage in the derims in the ovariectomy group than in the sham group. The intake of AVGP significantly ameliorated this acceleration in skin aging by reducing the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and increasing that of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and hyaluronan synthase (HAS) in the skin. These results indicate that AVGP supplementation prevents skin damage induced by UVB irradiation and ovariectomy in part by inhibiting damage to the extracellular matrix.

Galehdari H, Negahdari S, Kesmati M, Rezaie A, Shariati G.BMC Complement Altern MedPlant materials from Adiantum capillus-veneris, Commiphora molmol, Aloe Vera, and henna were collected for this study, and oven-dried at 60 °C. The dried leaves and resins were then crumbled into a powder and mixed in equal parts with Vaseline as a preservative. This mixture was used as an ointment on wounds induced in 60 diabetic and non-diabetic rats that were divided into 6 subgroups receiving agent or control treatments. Necrotic tissue surrounding the wound was periodically removed during wound healing. RNA was extracted from the healing region of the wound at days 7, 14 and 21 for cDNA synthesis to monitor changes in Tgfb1, Mmp3, Mmp9, Il6 and Tnf α expression using real-time PCR.

Sholehvar F, Mehrabani D, Yaghmaei P, Vahdati A.Dent TraumatolTwelve rabbits underwent anesthesia, and their incisor teeth were extracted; the pulp tissue was removed, chopped, treated with collagenase and plated in culture flasks. DPSCs from passage 3 were cultured in 24-well plates, and after 3 days, the culture media changed to 10, 25, 50, and 100% concentrations of Aloe vera at intervals of 45 and 90 min and 3 and 6 h. Distilled water was used as negative and HBSS as positive control for comparison. The cell morphology, viability, population doubling time (PDT), and growth kinetics were evaluated. RT-PCR was carried out for characterization and karyotyping for chromosomal stability.

Vangipuram S, Jha A, Bhashyam M.J Clin Exp DentThirty days randomized controlled trial was conducted among 390 dental students. The students were randomized into two intervention groups namely Aloe Vera (AV) chlorhexidine group (CHX) and one control (placebo) group. Plaque index and gingival index was recorded for each participant at baseline, 15 days and 30 days. The findings were than statistically analyzed, ANOVA and Post Hoc test were used. There was significant reduction (p<0.05) in the mean scores of all the parameters with Aloe Vera (AV) and chlorhexidine group. Post hoc test showed significant difference (p<0.000) in mean plaque and gingival index scores of aloe Vera and placebo and chlorhexidine and placebo group. No significant difference (p<0.05) was observed between Aloe Vera and chlorhexidine group.
2016Use of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) Technique to Study the Genetic Diversity of Eight Aloe SpeciesEzzat SM, El Sayed AM, Salama MMPlanta Med.The genus Aloe comprises over 400 species of flowering succulent plants. Aloe leaves are used in the treatment of asthma, gastrointestinal ulcers, cardiovascular disease, tumors, burns, and diabetes. They are rich in anthraquinones, such as aloin, aloe-emodin, chrysophanol, aloinoside A, and aloinoside B. The various species of Aloe show chemical and morphological similarity and diversity, which depend on the genotype and environmental conditions. In a continuity to our interest in the genus Aloe, this study targets the authentication of eight different Aloe species, Aloe vera (A1), Aloe arborescens (A2), Aloe eru (A3), Aloe grandidentata (A4), Aloe perfoliata (A5), Aloe brevifolia (A6), Aloe saponaria (A7), and Aloe ferox (A8), grown in Egypt by using the technique of random amplified polymorphic DNA. Twelve decamer primers were screened in amplification with genomic DNA extracted from all species, of which five primers yielded species-specific reproducible bands. Out of 156 loci detected, the polymorphic, monomorphic, and unique loci were 107, 26, and 23, respectively. Based on a dendrogram and similarity matrix, the eight Aloe species were differentiated from each other and showed more divergence. Aloe species prevailed similarity coefficients of 54-70 % by which they could be classified into three major groups. Thus, this technique may contribute to the identification of these Aloe species that have great morphological similarity in the Egyptian local markets.
2016Propagation Techniques and Agronomic Requirements for the Cultivation of Barbados Aloe (Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F.)-A ReviewCristiano G, Murillo-Amador B, De Lucia B.Front Plant SciBarbados aloe (Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F.) has traditionally been used for healing in natural medicine. However, aloe is now attracting great interest in the global market due to its bioactive chemicals which are extracted from the leaves and used in industrial preparations for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food products. Aloe originated from tropical and sub-tropical Africa, but it is also now cultivated in warm climatic areas of Asia, Europe, and America. In this review, the most important factors affecting aloe production are described. We focus on propagation techniques, sustainable agronomic practices and efficient post harvesting and processing systems.

Bala S, Chugh NA, Bansal SC, Garg ML, Koul A.AndrologiaThe present investigation was carried out to evaluate the possible radioprotective potential of an Aloe vera extract against whole-body X-ray irradiation-induced testicular alterations in mice. Male balb/c mice were divided into four groups: control, A. vera, X-ray and A. vera pre-treated + X-ray irradiated. Histopathological examination revealed significant structural alterations in testes after X-ray exposure, which was also associated with the presence of apoptotic cells as assessed by TUNEL assay. X-ray irradiation resulted in elevation in the levels of reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, a reduction in glutathione concentration and enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S-transferase. Sperm count/motility and testosterone levels were significantly decreased in the irradiated group. Irradiated animals pre-treated with A. vera extract revealed an improvement in antioxidant status, inhibition of lipid peroxides, apoptotic cell formation and enhanced testicular parameters when compared to the X-ray-exposed group. These findings suggest that A. vera extract could ameliorate X-ray-induced damage due to its free radical scavenging properties and its potential to boost cellular antioxidant defence machinery.
2016Evaluation of wound healing treated with latex derived from rubber trees and Aloe Vera extract in rats.Brandão ML, Reis PR, Araújo LA, Araújo AC, Santos MH, Miguel MP.Acta Cir BrasMETHODS: Twenty one rats were randomly divided into three groups and each one had a wound made by incision. The treatment consisted in: derivative of latex (GL), Aloe vera extract (GA) and saline solution (GC). The wound area was measured on the 7th, 14th and 21st days and macroscopic and microscopic evaluation were done. RESULTS: The comparison between the measurements of the wounds presented statistical difference in GC and GA from the 7th day of evaluation and GL from the 14th day. The extent of the wound was significantly smaller by the 7th day in GL. Histologically, in GL, the neovascularization was significant on the 7th, 14th and 21st days. On the 21st day the scar was large and little mature. In GA and GC, the findings were similar on the 7th, 14th and 21st days with a slight better organization of skin and collagen on the 21st in GA. CONCLUSIONS: Statistical analysis did not allow for the definition of the best topical agent. The latex had the highest angiogenesis, but a possible foreign body granuloma. Aloe vera has revealed a healing process adequated temporally in histology.
2016Clinical, radiographic, and histologic analysis of the effects of acemannan used in direct pulp capping of human primary teeth: short-term outcomes.Songsiripradubboon S, Banlunara W, Sangvanich P, Trairatvorakul C, Thunyakitpisal P.OdontologyAcemannan has been previously reported as a direct pulp-capping agent in animal study. This natural material demonstrated its biocompatibility and enhanced reparative dentin formation. The objective of this study was to investigate the action of acemannan as a direct pulp-capping material in human primary teeth with deep caries. Forty-two deeply carious mandibular primary molars from 37 children, aged 7-11 years old diagnosed with reversible pulpitis were studied. After completely removing the infected dentine, teeth with a pinpoint pulpal exposure were randomly divided into two treatment groups: acemannan or calcium hydroxide. A glass-ionomer cement base was applied to all teeth prior to restoration with stainless steel crowns. Clinical and radiographic evaluation was performed 6 months post-treatment. The teeth due to exfoliate were extracted and histopathologically evaluated for inflammation, dentine bridge formation, and soft tissue organization. At 6 months, the overall clinical and radiographic success rates of direct pulp capping with acemannan and calcium hydroxide at 6 months were 72.73 and 70.0 %, respectively. The histopathological results indicated that the acemannan-treated group had significantly better histopathological responses compared with the calcium hydroxide-treated group (p < 0.05). These data suggest acemannan offers a valuable alternative biomaterial for vital pulp therapy in primary teeth.

Lunyera J, Wang D, Maro V, Karia F, Boyd D, Omolo J, Patel UD, Stanifer JWBMC Complement Altern MedWe enrolled 481 adults of whom 45 (9.4 %) had diabetes. The prevalence of TM use among individuals with diabetes was 77.1 % (95 % CI 58.5-89.0 %), and the prevalence of using TMs and biomedicines concurrently was 37.6 % (95 % CI 20.5-58.4 %). Many were using TMs specifically to treat diabetes (40.3 %; 95 % CI 20.5-63.9), and individuals with diabetes reported seeking healthcare from traditional healers, elders, family, friends, and herbal vendors. We identified several plant-based TMs used toward diabetes care: Moringa oleifera, Cymbopogon citrullus, Hagenia abyssinica, Aloe vera, Clausena anisata, Cajanus cajan, Artimisia afra, and Persea americana.

Nair GR, Naidu GS, Jain S, Nagi R, Makkad RS, Jha A.J Clin Diagn ResComputerized literature searches were performed to identify all published articles in the subject. The following databases were used: PUBMED [MEDLINE], SCOPUS, COCHRANE DATABASE, EMBASE and SCIENCE DIRECT using specific keywords. The search was limited to articles published in English or with an English Abstract. All articles (or abstracts if available as abstracts) were read in full. Data were extracted in a predefined fashion. Assessment was done using Jadad score. Fifteen studies satisfied the inclusion criteria. Population of sample study ranged from 20 patients to 110 patients with clinically diagnosed oral mucosal lesions. Out of 15 studies, five were on patients with oral lichen planus, two on patients with oral submucous fibrosis, other studies were carried on patients with burning mouth syndrome, radiation induced mucositis, candida associated denture stomatitis, xerostomic patients and four were on minor recurrent apthous stomatitis. Most studies showed statistically significant result demonstrating the effectiveness of Aloe vera in treatment of oral diseases.
2015Evolutionary history and leaf succulence as explanations for medicinal use in aloes and the global popularity of Aloe veraOlwen M Grace, Sven Buerki , Matthew RE Symonds , Félix Forest , Abraham E van Wyk , Gideon F Smith, Ronell R Klopper, Charlotte S Bjorå , Sophie Neale, Sebsebe Demissew, Monique SJ Simmonds and Nina RønstedBMC Evolutionary BiologyAloe vera supports a substantial global trade yet its wild origins, and explanations for its popularity over 500 related Aloe species in one of the world’s largest succulent groups, have remained uncertain. We developed an explicit phylogenetic framework to explore links between the rich traditions of medicinal use and leaf succulence in aloes. The phylogenetic hypothesis clarifies the origins of Aloe vera to the Arabian Peninsula at the northernmost limits of the range for aloes. The genus Aloe originated in southern Africa ~16 million years ago and underwent two major radiations driven by different speciation processes, giving rise to the extraordinary diversity known today. Large, succulent leaves typical of medicinal aloes arose during the most recent diversification ~10 million years ago and are strongly correlated to the phylogeny and to the likelihood of a species being used for medicine. A significant, albeit weak, phylogenetic signal is evident in the medicinal uses of aloes, suggesting that the properties for which they are valued do not occur randomly across the branches of the phylogenetic tree. Phylogenetic investigation of plant use and leaf succulence among aloes has yielded new explanations for the extraordinary market dominance of Aloe vera. The industry preference for Aloe vera appears to be due to its proximity to important historic trade routes, and early introduction to trade and cultivation. Well-developed succulent leaf mesophyll tissue, an adaptive feature that likely contributed to the ecological success of the genus Aloe, is the main predictor for medicinal use among Aloe species, whereas evolutionary loss of succulence tends to be associated with losses of medicinal use. Phylogenetic analyses of plant use offer potential to understand patterns in the value of global plant diversity.

Prueksrisakul T, Chantarangsu S, Thunyakitpisal P.J Complement Integr MedThe aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Aloe vera gel extract on plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and oral pathogenic bacteria in healthy volunteer. Fifty-three healthy volunteers were participated and interviewed for history of allergy, current systemic diseases and medications. Participants were received 250 mL of A. vera gel extract daily for 14 consecutive days. At days 0 and 15 of the experiment, blood samples were collected and analyzed for biochemical markers. The plasma TAC was evaluated by ferric reducing ability of plasma technique. The biochemical markers, including aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein (TP), serum albumin (ALB), serum globulin (GLB), total bilirubin (TB), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Cr) and creatinine clearance (CrCl) were measured. The antibacterial effect of A. vera gel extract against Lactobacillus spp. and Streptococcus mutans was also investigated. Statistical analysis was performed using paired t-test to compare between baseline and 14 days post-intervention. Neither allergy nor side effects of A. vera gel extract was detected. After 14 days of A. vera gel extract consumption, plasma TAC was significantly greater than that of baseline (p = 0.001). ALP, TB, TP and GLB were significantly increased (p < 0.05) which were still within normal range. AST, ALT, ALB, BUN, Cr and CrCl were not significantly different. A. vera gel extract significantly reduced the number of Lactobacillus spp. (p < 0.05), not S. mutans. Our data revealed that A. vera gel extract significantly increased plasma TAC, and decreased the number of Lactobacillus spp. without any clinical side effects.
2015Herbal and plant therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.Triantafyllidi A, Xanthos T, Papalois A, Triantafillidis JK.Ann Gastroenterol.The use of herbal therapy in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing worldwide. The aim of this study was to review the literature on the efficacy of herbal therapy in IBD patients. Studies on herbal therapy for IBD published in Medline and Embase were reviewed, and response to treatment and remission rates were recorded. Although the number of the relevant clinical studies is relatively small, it can be assumed that the efficacy of herbal therapies in IBD is promising. The most important clinical trials conducted so far refer to the use of mastic gum, tormentil extracts, wormwood herb, aloe vera, triticum aestivum, germinated barley foodstuff, and boswellia serrata. In ulcerative colitis, aloe vera gel, triticum aestivum, andrographis paniculata extract and topical Xilei-san were superior to placebo in inducing remission or clinical response, and curcumin was superior to placebo in maintaining remission; boswellia serrata gum resin and plantago ovata seeds were as effective as mesalazine, whereas oenothera biennis had similar relapse rates as ω-3 fatty acids in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. In Crohn's disease, mastic gum, Artemisia absinthium, and Tripterygium wilfordii were superior to placebo in inducing remission and preventing clinical postoperative recurrence, respectively. Herbal therapies exert their therapeutic benefit by different mechanisms including immune regulation, antioxidant activity, inhibition of leukotriene B4 and nuclear factor-kappa B, and antiplatelet activity. Large, double-blind clinical studies assessing the most commonly used natural substances should urgently be conducted.

Hussain A, Sharma C, Khan S, Shah K, Haque S.Asian Pac J Cancer Prev.Many of the anti-cancer agents currently used have an origin in natural sources including plants. Aloe vera is one such plant being studied extensively for its diverse health benefits, including cancer prevention. In this study, the cytotoxic potential of Aloe vera crude extract (ACE) alone or in combination with cisplatin in human breast (MCF-7) and cervical (HeLa) cancer cells was studied by cell viability assay, nuclear morphological examination and cell cycle analysis. Effects were correlated with modulation of expression of genes involved in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis and drug metabolism by RT-PCR. Exposure of cells to ACE resulted in considerable loss of cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent fashion, which was found to be mediated by through the apoptotic pathway as evidenced by changes in the nuclear morphology and the distribution of cells in the different phases of the cell cycle. Interestingly, ACE did not have any significant cytotoxicity towards normal cells, thus placing it in the category of safe chemopreventive agent. Further, the effects were correlated with the downregulation of cyclin D1, CYP 1A1, CYP 1A2 and increased expression of bax and p21 in MCF-7 and HeLa cells. In addition, low dose combination of ACE and cisplatin showed a combination index less than 1, indicating synergistic growth inhibition compared to the agents applied individually. In conclusion, these results signify that Aloe vera may be an effective anti-neoplastic agent to inhibit cancer cell growth and increase the therapeutic efficacy of conventional drugs like cispolatin. Thus promoting the development of plant-derived therapeutic agents appears warranted for novel cancer treatment strategies.
2015Topical Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) Extract Does Not Accelerate the Oral Wound Healing in Rats.Coelho FH, Salvadori G, Rados PV, Magnusson A, Danilevicz CK, Meurer L, Martins MD.Phytother Res.The effect of topical application of Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) extract was assessed on the healing of rat oral wounds in an in vivo model using 72 male Wistar rats divided into three groups (n = 24): control, placebo and Aloe Vera (0.5% extract hydroalcoholic). Traumatic ulcers were caused in the dorsum of the tongue using a 3-mm punch tool. The Aloe Vera and placebo group received two daily applications. The animals were sacrificed after 1, 5, 10 and 14 days. Clinical analysis (ulcer area and percentage of repair) and histopathological analysis (degree of re-epithelialization and inflammation) were performed. The comparison of the differences between scores based on group and experimental period, both in quantitative and semi-quantitative analyses, was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. The significance level was 5%. On day 1, all groups showed predominantly acute inflammatory infiltrate. On day 5, there was partial epithelialization and chronic inflammatory infiltrate. On the days 10 and 14 total repair of ulcers was observed. There was no significant difference between groups in the repair of mouth ulcers. It is concluded that treatment using Aloe Vera as an herbal formulation did not accelerate oral wound healing in rats.
2015Combining Chemical Permeation Enhancers for Synergistic Effects.du Toit T, Malan MM, Lemmer HJ, Gouws C, Aucamp ME, Breytenbach WJ, Hamman JH.Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet.Currently, macromolecular drugs such as proteins are mainly administered by means of injections due to their low intestinal epithelial permeability and poor stability in the gastrointestinal tract. This study investigated binary combinations of chemical drug absorption enhancers to determine if synergistic drug absorption enhancement effects exist. Aloe vera, Aloe ferox and Aloe marlothii leaf gel materials, as well as with N-trimethyl chitosan chloride (TMC), were combined in different ratios and their effects on the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), as well as the transport of FITC-dextran across Caco-2 cell monolayers, were measured. The isobole method was applied to determine the type of interaction that exists between the absorption enhancers combinations. The TEER results showed synergism existed for the combinations between A. vera and A. marlothii, A. marlothii and A. ferox as well as A. vera and TMC. Antagonism interactions also occurred and can probably be explained by chemical reactions between the chemical permeation enhancers, such as complex formation. In terms of FITC-dextran transport, synergism was found for combinations between A. vera and A. marlothii, A. marlothii and A. ferox, A. vera and TMC, A. ferox and TMC and A. marlothii and TMC, whereas antagonism was observed for A. vera and A. ferox. The combinations where synergism was obtained have the potential to be used as effective drug absorption enhancers at lower concentrations compared to the single components.
2015Review of Clinical Pharmacology of Aloe vera L. in the Treatment of Psoriasis.Miroddi M1, Navarra M, Calapai F, Mancari F, Giofrè SV, Gangemi S, Calapai G.Phytother Res.Aloe vera L., is a plant used worldwide as folk remedy for the treatment of various ailments, including skin disorders. Its gel is present in cosmetics, medicinal products and food supplements. Psoriasis, an immune-mediated chronic inflammatory disease, involving mainly the skin, affects about the 2-3% of general population. Conventional pharmacological treatments for psoriasis can have limited effectiveness and can cause adverse reactions. For this reason often psoriatic patients look for alternative treatments based on natural products containing Aloe vera. We conducted a systematic review of clinical trials assessing effectiveness and safety of aloe for the treatment of psoriasis. Clinical studies published in English were considered; a total of four clinical trials met inclusion criteria. Studies were also evaluated by using the Jadad scale and Consort Statement in Reporting Clinical trials of Herbal Medicine Intervention. Quality and methodological accuracy of considered studies varied considerably, and some crucial information to reproduce clinical results was missing. We conclude that administration of aloe as cutaneous treatment is generally well tolerated, as no serious side effects were reported. Results on the effectiveness of Aloe vera are contradictory; our analysis reveals the presence of methodological gaps preventing to reach final conclusions.

Hashemi SA, Madani SA, Abediankenari S.Biomed Res Int.Treatment of wounds is very important and was subject of different investigations. In this regard, natural substance plays crucial role as complementary medicine. Various studies reported that aloe vera has useful effects on wounds especially cutaneous wounds healing. Therefore in the current review, we examined the effect of aloe vera on cutaneous wound healing and concluded that although aloe vera improves the wound healing as well as other procedures both clinically and experimentally, more studies are still needed to approve the outcomes.

Anuszewska EL.Wiad Lek.Genus Aloe was traditionally applied for the medicinal practice over thousands of years and used for treatment of wide range of medical indication from stomach disorders to cancer. Fresh leaves of aloe contain various groups of chemical compounds such as: glycoproteins, polysaccharides, anthraquinone derivatives, vitamins, minerals, aminoacids and many others, which show multidirectional therapeutic action. These active components are responsible for immunomodulatory, antiinflammatory and antimicrobial effects of aloe Recent data confirmed that aloe possess a unique therapeutic profile and has positive potential for medical application.

Goudarzi M, Fazeli M, Azad M, Seyedjavadi SS, Mousavi R.Chemother Res Pract.Objective. Aloe vera is an herbal medicinal plant with biological activities, such as antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic ones, and immunomodulatory properties. The purpose of this study was investigation of in vitro antimicrobial activity of A. vera gel against multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from patients with burn wound infections. Methods. During a 6-month study, 140 clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa were collected from patients admitted to the burn wards of a hospital in Tehran, Iran. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was carried out against the pathogens using the A. vera gel and antibiotics (imipenem, gentamicin, and ciprofloxacin). Results. The antibiogram revealed that 47 (33.6%) of all isolates were MDR P. aeruginosa. The extract isolated from A. vera has antibacterial activity against all of isolates. Also, 42 (89.4%) isolates were inhibited by A. vera gel extract at minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≤ 200 µg/mL. MIC value of A. vera gel for other isolates (10.6%) was 800 µg/mL. All of MDR P. aeruginosa strains were inhibited by A. vera at similar MIC50 and MIC90 200 µg/mL. Conclusion. Based on our results, A. vera gel at various concentrations can be used as an effective antibacterial agent in order to prevent wound infection caused by P. aeruginosa.

Alinejad-Mofrad S, Foadoddini M, Saadatjoo SA, Shayesteh M.J Diabetes Metab Disord.BACKGROUND: Pre-diabetes is a disturbing trend in the population, who are at risk of developing type-two diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine the effects use of Aloe vera in different doses on glucose and lipid profile in pre-diabetic subjects. METHODS: This study was a double blind randomized controlled trial (72 subjects) with pre-diabetes symptoms in 3 groups consumed capsules twice a day: Aloe vera 300 mg (AL300), 500 mg (AL500) and placebo (PL). Fasting blood glucose (FBS), HbA1C and lipid profile were evaluated in baseline, 4 or 8 weeks. On-way ANOVA, Friedman, Wilcoxon, Kruskal-Wallis , Mann-Whitney and Chi-square tests were used for within or between groups statistical analysis. RESULTS: FBS level in group AL300, showed significantly decreased in fourth week after the intervention, compared to PL in the same time (p = 0.001). Also, HbA1C level in this group at the eighth week after the intervention (p = 0.042), had a significant decrease. The levels of Total cholesterol and LDL-C, only in the group AL500 (p < 0.001 and p = 0.01), was significantly reduced, along with HDL-C level improvement just after eight weeks (p = 0.004). Triglyceride level showed a significant decrease (p < 0.045) just after four weeks use of AL500. CONCLUSIONS: The Use of Aloe vera extract in pre-diabetic patients, could revert impaired blood glucose within four weeks, but after eight weeks could alleviate their abnormal lipid profile.

Prabhakar AR, Karuna YM, Yavagal C, Deepak BM.Contemp Clin Dent.CONTEXT: The survival of atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) restorations would probably increase if near total elimination of cariogenic microorganisms could be done in the process of cavity cleaning before going ahead with the restoration. Thus, use of naturally occurring disinfecting agents for achieving this goal could herald a new beginning in the field of contemporary minimum intervention dentistry. AIMS: To evaluate the efficacy of hand instruments in excavating dental caries and comparatively evaluate the roles of Aloe vera and propolis as potential cavity disinfecting agents after minimally invasive hand excavation of dental caries. SETTINGS AND DESIGNS: Experimental, in vivo intergroup split mouth, randomized clinical trial. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study included Group I (Control), Group II (A. vera) and Group III (propolis). Ten patients with three teeth each have occlusal/occlusoproximal lesions suitable for ART were selected. Dentinal samples were collected three times from each tooth viz., preexcavation, postexcavation and postdisinfection of the cavities. These dentinal samples were subjected to microbiological analyses for total viable count. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Repeated measures of analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Bonferroni post-hoc test and one-way ANOVA with Tukey post-hoc test. RESULTS: In all the three groups, significant amount of bacteria were left behind after hand excavation. Group II and Group III, in which cavities were treated with A. vera and propolis extracts respectively, showed a significant reduction in the bacterial counts when compared to control the group. CONCLUSIONS: Hand excavation alone does not completely eliminate bacteria, which may predispose treated teeth to secondary caries. Both propolis and A. vera extracts can be used as potential natural disinfecting agents, thereby embracing the concept of phytotherapy in minimum intervention dentistry.
2015Efficacy and safety of Aloe vera syrup for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease: a pilot randomized positive-controlled trial.Panahi Y, Khedmat H, Valizadegan G, Mohtashami R, Sahebkar A.J Tradit Chin MedOBJECTIVE: To investigate the use of Aloe vera (A. vera) for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms and compare its effects with those of omeprazole and ranitidine. METHODS: In this pilot, randomized controlled trial, 79 subjects were allocated to A. vera syrup (standardized to 5.0 mg polysaccharide per mL of syrup) at a dose of 10 mL/d, omeprazole capsule (20 g/d) or ranitidine tablet (150 mg in a fasted state in the morning and 150 mg 30 min before sleep at night) for a period of 4 weeks. The frequencies of eight main symptoms of GERD (heartburn, food regurgitation, flatulence, belching, dysphagia, nausea, vomiting and acid regurgitation) were assessed at weeks 2 and 4 of the trial. RESULTS: A. vera was safe and well tolerated and reduced the frequencies of all the assessed GERD symptoms, with no adverse events requiring withdrawal. CONCLUSION: A. vera may provide a safe and effective treatment for reducing the symptoms of GERD.
2015Topical application of Aloe vera and vitamin E on induced ulcers on the tongue of rats subjected to radiation: clinical and histological Freitas Cuba L, Braga Filho A, Cherubini K, Salum FG, Figueiredo MA.Support Care CancerOBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to assess the effect of two types of antioxidants, vitamin E (VE) and Aloe vera (AV), on healing of induced oral lesions after radiation in a murine model by clinical and histological analysis. METHODS: The animals were randomly divided into three groups of 12 animals each (400 mg VE, 70 % AV and control) and two time periods (5 and 7 days). They were irradiated with a single dose of 30 Gy, and after 24 h, a lesion was produced on the ventral tongue of each animal. The products were applied daily in their respective group until euthanasia. RESULTS: On clinical analysis, there was a higher frequency of lesions in the animals of the control group at both periods. The area of the lesions was also greater in the control group compared with the groups AV and VE (5 days p = 0.006; 7 days p = 0.002). On microscopic analysis, the degree of inflammation differed between the study groups and experimental periods. At 5 days, the statistical difference was not significant among the groups evaluated, but at 7 days, animals in the control group showed intense inflammation, while those in groups VE and AV exhibited mild to moderate inflammation (p = 0.002).
2015Aloin Protects Skin Fibroblasts from Heat Stress-Induced Oxidative Stress Damage by Regulating the Oxidative Defense System.Liu FW, Liu FC, Wang YR, Tsai HI, Yu HP.PLoS OneOxidative stress is commonly involved in the pathogenesis of skin damage induced by environmental factors, such as heat stress. Skin fibroblasts are responsible for the connective tissue regeneration and the skin recovery from injury. Aloin, a bioactive compound in Aloe vera, has been reported to have various pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of aloin against heat stress-mediated oxidative stress in human skin fibroblast Hs68 cells. Hs68 cells were first incubated at 43°C for 30 min to mimic heat stress. The study was further examined if aloin has any effect on heat stress-induced oxidative stress. We found that aloin protected Hs68 cells against heat stress-induced damage, as assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase assay. Aloin protected Hs68 cells by regulating reactive oxygen species production and increasing the levels of glutathione, cytosolic and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase. Aloin also prevented the elevation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the reduction of 8-OH-dG induced by heat stress. These results indicated that aloin protected human skin fibroblasts from heat stress-induced oxidative stress damage by regulating the oxidative defense system.
2015Deacetylation affects the physical properties and bioactivity of acemannan, an extracted polysaccharide from Aloe vera.Chokboribal J, Tachaboonyakiat W, Sangvanich P, Ruangpornvisuti V, Jettanacheawchankit S, Thunyakitpisal P.Carbohydr PolymAcemannan, an acetylated polymannose from Aloe vera, induces tissue repair. We investigated the role of acemannan's acetyl-groups on its physical and biological properties. Deacetylated acemannan (DeAcAM) was prepared and characterized. The physical properties and microscopic structure of DeAcAM were evaluated using water solubility, contact angle, X-ray diffraction, and scanning-electron microscopy. The activity of DeAcAM on cell proliferation and gene expression were assessed. Acemannan and DeAcAM structures were simulated and the acemannan tetramer diad and its completely deacetylated structure were also determined. Increased acemannan deacetylation reduced its water solubility and hydrophilicity. Complete deacetylation altered acemannan's conformation to a partial crystal structure. The bioactivity of acemannan was reduced corresponding to its deacetylation. Acemannan induced cell proliferation, and VEGF and Collagen I expression; however, 100% DeAcAM did not. The simulated structures of the acemannan diad and the completely deacetylated diad were different. We conclude acetyl-groups affect acemannan's structure and physical/biological properties.
2015Growth Period Effects on the Protective Properties of Aloe vera Against t-BHP-Induced Oxidative Stress in Chang Cells.Hwang JW, Kim EK, Kim YS, Lee JW, Lee JJ, Pyo HJ, Moon SH, Jeon BT, Park PJ.J Microbiol BiotechnolAloe vera has been used in traditional medicine for the therapy of a variety of disorders, such as wounds and burns. However, few studies have examined the antioxidant capacities of A. vera plants during different growth periods. In order to investigate the effects of growth on antioxidant activity, A. vera was prepared from 2-, 4-, 6-, 8-, and 12-month-old aloe. The extracts from 6-month-old A. vera showed the highest contents of flavonoids (9.750 mg catechin equivalent/g extract) and polyphenols (23.375 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract) and the highest ferric reducing antioxidant power (0.047 mM ferrous sulfate equivalent/mg extract). The extract from 6-month-old A. vera exhibited the highest free radical scavenging potential, and the lowest IC50 values were found for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (0.26 mg/ml) and alkyl radicals (0.50 mg/ml). In addition, the extract from 6-month-old A. vera showed the greatest effects on cell viability in normal liver cells. Based on these findings, the extract from 6-month-old A. vera was examined further in order to determine its protective potential against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative stress. The extract from 6-monthold A. vera at a concentration of 0.25 mg/ml showed the highest protective activity against t-BHP-induced reactive oxygen species production. These findings suggested that harvesting regimens were critical in the regulation of effects of the bioactive potential of A. vera on antioxidant activity.

Brown PN, Yu R, Kuan CH, Finley J, Mudge EM, Dentali S.J AOAC Int.A single-laboratory validation (SLV) was conducted on an HPLC method for the detection and quantification of aloin A and aloin B in Aloe vera raw materials and finished products. An extraction procedure using sonication with an acidified solvent was used for solid test materials while liquid test materials only required dilution, if necessary, prior to filtration and analysis. Separation was achieved using a fused core C18 column in 18 min under isocratic elution conditions allowing for a single analyte (aloin A) calibration curve to quantify both aloins. Adequate chromatographic resolution (Rs ≥1) was achieved for aloin A and aloin B. The calibration curves for aloin A exhibited coefficients of determination (r(2)) of ≥99.9% over the linear range of 0.3-50 μg/mL. The LOD values were 0.092 and 0.087 μg/mL, and LOQ 0.23 and 0.21 μg/mL for aloin A and aloin B, respectively. Repeatability studies were performed on nine test materials on each of 3 separate days, with five of the test materials determined to be above the LOQ having repeatability RSD (RSDr) values ranging from 0.61 to 6.30%. Method accuracy was determined through a spike recovery study on both liquid and solid matrixes at three different levels: low, medium, and high. For both aloins, the recovery in the liquid matrix ranged from 92.7 to 106.3% with an RSDr of 0.15 to 4.30%, while for the solid matrix, the recovery ranged from 84.4 to 108.9% with an RSDr of 0.23 to 3.84%. Based on the results of the SLV study, it is recommended that this method be evaluated for reproducibility through a collaborative study.

Aloe vera Gel Research Review

Oliver Grundmann, BPharm, MS, PhDNatural Medicine JournalAloe vera, commonly known as Barbados or Curaçao Aloe, is an herbal medicine with a long tradition of use by a variety of cultures. The succulent plant grows in arid and subtropical climates and is best known for 2 distinct preparations: the clear mucilaginous gel that is widely used for the treatment of minor burns, especially sunburns, and the thick sap of the leaves that turns yellow-brown and has strong laxative effects that caution its use. The traditional uses of the clear mucilaginous gel are manifold, ranging from topical applications to reduce perspiration to oral dosing for diabetes and a range of gastrointestinal ailments. The efficacy of aloe vera gel to treat burn wounds, genital herpes, and seborrheic dermatitis have been shown in clinical trials, but other indications such as psoriasis or internal application for the treatment of type 2 diabetes remain inconclusive. The main limitation of the current clinical knowledge about aloe vera gel is small clinical studies that often lack rigorous methodology. Several clinical trials are being conducted to further evaluate the use of aloe vera gel for a variety of disorders, as well as to further confirm traditional uses of the plant extract.
2010A Randomized Crossover trial of 2 different Aloe Vera Preparations Compared to Placebo on Bioavailability of Vitamins C and B12, Blood Glucose and Lipid Profile in Healthy Human SubjectsSridevi Devaraj, PhDJournal of Dietary SupplementsThe number of individuals taking vitamin/mineral supplements in the US is on the rise (about 50%). Aloe vera is a botanical that is commonly used to treat skin infections/wounds and has immunomodulatory properties. A single study has previously reported that Aloe preparations improved the absorption of vitamin C (Vinson et al, 2003). However, they failed to examine if there were any effects on B-vitamins. Since oral B12 is often deficient in vegetarians and in the aging adult population, it would also be prudent to examine the effect of Aloe on the absorption of this vitamin in older adults. The Institute of Medicine has recommended that people over 50 supplement their diets with fortified foods or dietary supplements in order to meet the daily requirements of vitamin B12 because of the high incidence of impaired absorption (1998). Thus, the aim of this study is to examine the effect of 2 different Aloe vera preparations compared to placebo on the bioavailability of vitamins, C and B12, in healthy human volunteers.
2010Aloe vera as a Functional Ingredient in FoodsElena Rodríguez Rodríguez, Jacinto Darias Martín, Carlos Díaz RomeroCritical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 
2010Effect of Aloe Cream versus Silver Sulfadiazine for Healing Burn Wounds in RatsSeyed Jalal Hosseinimehr, Ghasemali Khorasani, Mohammad Azadbakht, Peyman Zamani, Maryam Ghasemi, Amirhossein AhmadiActa Dermatovenerol Croat 
2010Effects of Aloe vera Cream on Posthemorrhoidectomy Pain and Wound Healing: Results of a Randomized, Blind, Placebo-Control StudyFariborz Eshghi, M.D., Seyed Jalal Hosseinimehr, Ph.D., Nasrin Rahmani, M.D, Mohammad Khademloo, M.D., Mohammad Sina Norozi, M.D., and Omolbanin Hojati, M.D.The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, Vol. 16., No. 6 

Yun JM, Singh S, Jialal R, Rockwood J, Jialal I, Devaraj S.J Diet Suppl.Several factors limit the absorption and bioavailability of vitamins. Vitamin C, a commonly used water-soluble supplement reduces the risk of disease. Vitamin B(12) is necessary for the development of RBC, growth, and nervous system. Vitamin B(12) deficiency is common among elderly. Thus, agents that improve bioavailability of vitamin C and B(12), especially in older individuals would be important. Aloe Vera is a botanical with immunomodulatory properties. Aloe is processed using the hand-filleted technique or whole leaf procedure. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of two different aloe vera preparations (aloe inner leaf gel, [AG] and aloe whole leaf decolorized gel, [AL]) compared to placebo on the bioavailability of vitamins, C and B(12), in healthy human volunteers in a randomized crossover trial. Subjects (n = 15) received in a random fashion either aloe whole leaf extract (AL with vitamins B(12), 1 mg and vitamin C 500 mg) or aloe fillet gel (AG with B(12) 1 mg and vitamin C 500 mg) or water (with vitamin B(12) 1 mg and vitamin C 500 mg). Blood was obtained fasting, followed by 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 24 hours postingestion of aloe/water. When given with vitamins C and B(12), AG significantly increased plasma oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) at both 4 and 24 hours and AL at 4 hours compared to baseline and placebo. AG significantly increased plasma vitamin C at 4, 6, 8, and 24 hours and AL at 4 and 6 hours compared to baseline and placebo (p <.01). Also, both aloes significantly increased serum vitamin B(12) levels at 1 and 2 hours compared to baseline and placebo (p <.01). Thus, AG and AL preparations are safe, well tolerated, and enhance the bioavailability of vitamins C and B(12) and antioxidant potential.
2009Comparative Evaluation of the Antimicrobal Efficacy of Aloe vera Tooth Gel and Two Popular Commercial Toothpastes: An in Vitro StudyDilip George, Md.S., Sham S. Bhat.Md.S., Beena Antony Ph.D.General Dentistry 
2009Inhibition of Infectious Diseases by Components from Aloe VeraNorimitsu Tamura, Tadashi Yoshida, Kazuhiro Miyaji, Yoshiko Sugita-Konishi, and Makato HattoriBiosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 73 
2009Evaluation of Aloin and Aloe-Emodin as Inti-Inflammatory Agents in Aloe by Using Murine MacrophagesMi-Young Park, Hoon-Jeong Kwon, and Mi-Kyung SungBiosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 73 
2009A HPTLC Densitometric Method for the Determination of Aloeverose in Aloe vera GelRichard Lobo, Kirti S. Prabhu, Arun Shirwaikar, Mamatha Ballal, C. Balachandran, Annie ShirwaikarFitoterapia 
2009Aloe Versus Silver Sulfadiazine Creams for Second-Degree Burns: A Randomized Controlled StudyGhasemali Khorasani, Seyed Jalal Hosseinimehr, Mohammad Azadbakht, Arman Zamani, and Mohammad Reza MahdaviSurgery Today 
2009Hypoglycemic and Hypolipidemic Effects of Processed Aloe vera Gel in a Mouse Model of Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes MellitusKwanghee Kim, Hyunyul Kim, Jeunghak Kwon, Sungwon Lee, Hyunseok Kong, Sun-A Im, Young-Hee Lee, Young-Ran Lee, Sun-Tack Oh, Tae Hyung Jo, Young In Park, Chong-Kil Lee, Kyungjae KimPhytomedicine, 16 
2009Estimation of Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) of Active AloeSeung Jun Kwack, Kyu Bong Kim, Byung Mu LeeJournal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A 
2009Equivocal Colonic Carcinogenicity of Aloe arborescens Miller var. natalensis Berger at High-Dose Level in Wistar Hannover Rat 2-y StudyM. Yokohira, Y. Matsuda, S. Suzuki, K. Hosokawa, K. Yamakawa, N. Hashimoto, K. Saoo, K. Nabae, Y. Doi, T. Kuno, and K. ImadaJournal of Food and Science, Vol. 74, No. 2 
2009Safety Studies Conducted on a Proprietary High-Purity Aloe Vera Inner Leaf Fillet Preparation, QmatrixLonnie D. Williams, George A. Burdock, Eunju Shin, Seunghyun Kim, T.H. Jo, Kenneth N. Jones, Ray A. MatulkaRegulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 
2008One-Year Chronic Toxicity Study of Aloe arborescens Miller var. natalensis Berger in Wistar Hannover Rats. A Pilot Study.Yoko Matsuda, Masanao Yokohira, Satoshi Suzuki, Kyoko Hosokawa, Keiko Yamakawa, Yu Zeng, Fumiko Ninomiya, Kousuke Saoo, Toshiya Kuno, Katsumi ImaidaScience Direct, 46 
2008The Ins and Outs of Alove Vera How Ale Can Help Your Skin Recover from the Summer Sun and More.Sarah HarwoodWhole Foods 
2008Comparison of High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic and Thin-Layer Chromatographic Methods for Determination of Aloin Herbal Products Containing Aloe veraRosalba Ramirez Duron, Lucia Ceniceros Almaguer, Norma Cecilla Cavazos Rocha, Perla Giovanna Silva Flores, and Noemi Waksman De TorresJournal of AOAC Internationa, Vol. 91, No. 6 
2008Role of Preservatives and Storage Temperature on the Post Harvest Quality of Aloe vera GelP. Hemalatha, E. Vadivel, T. Saraswathi and K. RajamaniAdvances in Plant Sciences, Vol. 21, No. 2 
2008Therapeutic Uses of Aloe L. (Asphodelaceae) in Southern AfricaO.M. Grace, M.S.J. Simmondsa, G.F. Smith, A.E. van WykJournal of Ethnopharmacology, 119 
2008Composition and Applications of Aloe vera Leaf GelJosias H. HammanMolecules, 13 
2008Processing of Aloe Vera Leaf Gel: A ReviewC.T. Ramachandra and P. Srinivasa RaoAmerican Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences, 3 
2008Effect of Aloe vera Whole Leaf Extract on Short Chain Fatty Acids Production by Bacteroides fragilis, Bifidobacterium infantis and Eubacterium limosumM. Pogribna, J.P. Freeman, D. Paine and M.D. BoudreauThe Society for Applied Microbiology, Letters in Applied Microbiology, 46 
2007Determination of the Anthraquinones Aloe-Emodin and Aloin-A by Liquid Chromatography with Mass Spectrometric and Diode Array DetectionMahmoud A. ElSohly, Waseem Gul, Bharathi Avula, and Ikhlas A. KhanJournal of AOAC International, Vol. 90, No. 1 
2007Study of the Ancient Traditional Therapeutic Methods of Kaljikhal Block of District Pauri Garhwal (Uttaranchal)Vinod KumarAdvances in Plant Sciences 
2007The Effects of Aloe vera Extracts on Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication (GJIC) and Proliferation of Human Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Skin FibroblastsAhmed Abdullah, Mary Lynn Johnson, Kar. M. Abdullah, Jerzy J. Bilski, Kimberly Petry, Lawrence P. Reynols, Dale A. Redmer, and Anna T. Grazul-BilskaWorld Web Information 
2007Severity of Leaf Harvest, Supplemental Nutrients, and Sulfur Application on Long-term Leaf Production of Aloe barbadensis MillerYin-Tung WangHortScience, 42 
2006Review Article: Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Inflamatory Bowel DiseaseL. Langmead & D.S. RamptonAlimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 23 
2006Herbal Medicine in SamoaW. Arthur WhistlerAllertonia, Vol. 9, No. 2 
2006An Evaluation of the Biological and Toxicological Properties of Aloe Barbadensis (Miller), Aloe VeraMary D. Boudreau and Frederick A. BelandJournal of Environmental Science and Health Part C, 24 
2006Quality Control and Standardization of Aloe ProductsKyeong Ho Kim Ph.D., and Jeong Hill Park Ph.D.New Perspectives on Aloe 
2006A review of the trade in Aloe ferox, with a focus on the role of the European UnionAmélie KnappTraffic Aurope 
2005Quantitative Colorimetric Analysis of Aloe Polysaccharides as a Measure of Aloe Vera Quality in Commerical ProductsAlexis R. Eberendu, Gabriela Luta, Joshua A. Edwards, Bill H. McAnnaley, Brice Davis, Santiago Rodriguez, and S. Ray HenryJournal of AOAC International, Vol. 88, No. 3 
2005Acute Hepatitis Induced by an Aloe vera Preparation: A Case ReportChristian Rabe, Annemarie Musch, Peter Schirmacher, Wolfgang Kruis, Robert HoffmannWorld Journal of GastroenterologyAIM: Aloe vera, plant extracts of Aloe barbadensis miller, is widely used in phytomedicine. The first case of acute hepatitis due to this compound was described.
2005Absence of Contact Sensitization to Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f.N. Reider, A. Isaa, T. Hawranek, C. Schuster, W. Aberer, H. Kofler, P. Fritsch, and B.M. HausenContact Dermatitis 
2005Quality Control of Aloe Vera BeveragesKatrin Lachenmeier, Uta Kueppe, Frank Musshof, Burkhard Made, Helmut Reusch, Dirk W. LachenmeierElectronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry (EJEAFChe), 4Aloe vera beverages have to be produced exclusively using material of the plant species Aloe barbadensis MILLER. Commercial material was reported to be frequently adulterated by artificial preservatives or to lack significant amounts of Aloe ingredients. HPTLC and HS-SPME/GC/MS methods to assess the authenticity of Aloe vera beverages were developed in this study, allowing to differentiate between authentic and adulterated products. In one case a commercially available Aloe vera juice could be proven to be exceedingly watered down. Parallel to the authenticity control, the HS-SPME method employed in this work allowed to detect the preservatives benzoic acid, sorbic acid and pHB-esters. In 17 of 24 (71%) currently available Aloe-food products an illegal addition of preservatives of up to 1000 mg/l could be ascertained. The presented analyses of Aloe vera beverages lead to the conclusion, that this product line does not give any cause for hygienic but rather legal concerns: controls have to be intensified to ensure sufficient product quality with regard to preservatives.
2005Aloe Vera: Chemical Composition and Methods Used to Determine Its Presence in Commercial ProductsGabriela Luta, PhD and Bill H. McAnalley, PhDGlycoScience & Nutrition, Vol. 6, No, 4 
2005Aloe Polysaccharides and Their MeasurementRonald. R. Pelley Ph.D., M.D.Inside Aloe 
2004Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Oral Aloe vera Gel for Active Ulcerative ColitisL. Langmead, R.M. Feakins, S. Goldthorpe, H. Holt, E. Tsironi, A. de Sil;va, D.P. Jewell and D.S. RamptonAliment Pharmacol Ther, 19 
2004Final Report of the Cosmetic Ingredient Review Panel: Safety Assessment of Aloe Andongensis Extract, Aloe Andongensis Leaf Juice, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Extract, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Juice, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Protoplasts, Aloe Barbadensis Flower Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Juice, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Polysaccharides, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Water, Aloe Ferox Leaf Extract, Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice, and Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice ExtractWilma F. Bergfeld, M.D., Donald V. Belsito, M.D., Curtis D. Klaassen, Ph.D., James G. Marks, Jr., M.D., Ronald C. Shank, Ph.D., Thomas J. Slaga, Ph.D., Paul W. Snyder, D.V.M., Ph.D., F. Alan Andersen, Ph.D.Cosmetic Ingredient Review 
2004Determination of Three Compounds in Aloe vera by Capillary ElectrophoresisYifang Yang, Hongmei Wang, Lei Guo and Yi ChenBiomedical Chromatography, 18 
2004Isolation and Characterization of Structural Compomemts of Aloe vera L. Leaf PulpY. Ni, D. Turner, K.M. Yates, I. TizardInternational Immynopharmacology, 4 
2004Korean Nutrition Industry Set for BreaktrhouSun-Ho Frank Kimn/a 
2004Evaluation and Comparison of Commercially Available Aloe vera L. Products Using Size Exclusion Chromatography with Refractive Index and Multi-Angle Laser Light Scattering DetectionCarlton E. Turner, David A. Williamson, Paul A. Stroud, Doug J. TalleyInternational Immynopharmacology, 4 
2004Market & Product Report: Functional Foods & Foshu, Japan 2004Paul Yamaguchi & Associates, Inc.Paul Yamaguchi & Associates, Inc. 
2003Effect of Aloe vera Preparations on the Human Bioavailability of Vitamins C and EJ.A. Vinson, H. Al Kharrat, L. AndreoliPhytomedicine 
2003Review of Significant Trade East african Aloesn/aPC14 Doc. 9.2.2, Annex 4 
2002Studies on the Photostability and Phototoxicity of Aloe-Emodin, Emodin and RheinF. Vargas, G. Fraile, M. Velasquez, H. Correia, G. Fonseca, M. Marin, E. Marcano and Y.SanchezPharmazie, Vol. 57, Issue 6 
2001Final Report: A Study for the Development of a Handbook of Selected Caribbean Herbs for IndustryDr. Compton Seaforth and Tricia TikasinghCTA 
2000Anthranoid laxative use is not a risk factor for colorectal neoplasia: results of a prospective case control studyG Nusko, B Schneider, I Schneider, Ch Wittekind and E G HahnGUT 
2000Are Aloe Anthraquinones Genotoxic and/or Carcinogenic?Ivan E. Danhof, Ph.D.North Texas Research Laborator 
1999Aloe barbadensis Fact SheetEdward F. GilmanUniversity of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural SciencesWell-known for the reputed medicinal value of the juice of its leaves, Aloe is an easy-to-grow, clump-forming, succulent perennial (Fig. 1). Its thick, abundant, spiny-edged, fleshy, light green leaves emerge in a rosette on a very short stem. A natural for groundcover or specimen use in rock gardens, Aloe is also well-suited for use as a small accent or container plant. Growth is normally very slow and little maintenance is needed to keep plants looking good. Flower stalks appear from the center of the plant producing a showy, reddish inflorescence.
1998The In's and Out's of AloeSusan AjamianWhole Horse Product Journal 
1998Immunochemical Distinction of Aloe vera, A. arborescens, and A. chinensis GelsAkira Yagi, Taro Egusa, Mami Arase, Miyo Tanabe, and Hiroshi TsujiPlanta Medica, 64 
1997Isolatioin and Characterization of the Glycoprotein Fraction with a Proliferation-Promoting Activity on Human and Hamster Cells in Vitro from Aloe vera GelAkira Yagi, Taro Egusa, Mami Arase, Miyo Tanabe, and Hiroshi TsujiPlanta Medica, 63 
1996Steroid Glucosides from Aloe barbadensisKaoru Kinosita, Kiyotaka Koyama, Kunio Takahashi, Yuki Noguchi, and Minoru AmanoJournal of Japanese Botanicals 
1996Neoaloesin A: A New C-Glycofuranosyl Chromone from Aloe barbadensisMan Ki Park, Jeong Hill Park, Young Geun Shin, Wang Yu Kim, Jong Ho Lee, and Kyeong Ho KimPlanta Medica, 62 
1993Purification and Characterization of a Glutathione Peroxidase from the Aloe vera PlantF. Sabeh, T. Wright, S.J. NortonEnzyme Protein 
1991Two-Year Study Monitoring Several Physical and Chemical Properties of Field-Grown Aloe barbadensis Miller LeavesYin-Tung Wang and Kimberly J. StrongTexas A&M University 
1991Identification of Some Prostanoids in Aloe vera ExtractsA. Afzal, M. Ali, R.A.H. Hassan, N. Sweedan, and M.S.J. DhamiPlanta Medica, 57 
1991In Vitro Virucidal Activity Of Selected Anthraquinones and Anthraquinone DerivativesDouglas O. Anderson, Norbert D. Weber, Steven G. Wood, Bronwyn G. Hughes, Byron K. Murray, and James A. NorthAntiviral Research, 16 
1990Prostaglandins, Glutathione Metabolism, and Lipid Peroxidation in Relation to Inflammation in Bovine MastitisFaik Atroshi, Satu Sankari, Aldo Rizzo, Tuomas Westermarck, and Jouko ParantainenAntioxidants in Therapy and Preventative Medicine 
1990Glyoxalase I and Glyoxalase II from Aloe Vera Purification, Characterizaton and Comparison with Animal GlyoxalasesNorton S.J. Talesa V., Yuan W.J., and Principalo G.B.Biochemistry International, Vol. 22, No. 3 
1990A Drug for All Seasons Medical and Pharmacological history of AloeJ.S. Haller, Jr., Ph.D.Bull. N.Y. Acad. Med., Vol. 66, No. 6 
1989An Anti-Complimentary Polysaccharide with Immunological Adjuvant Activity from the Leaf Parenchyma Gel of Aloe veraL.A. Hart, A.J.J. van der Berg, L. Kuis, H. van Dijk, and R.P. LabadiePlanta Medica, 55 
1985Effect Of Orally Consumed Aloe Vera Juice On Gastrointestinal Function In Normal HumansJeffrey Bland, Ph.D.Preventive MedicineThis study evaluated the effect of oral Aloe vera juice supplementation on gastric pH, stool specific gravity, protein digestion/absorption, and stool microbiology. Results indicate that supplemental oral Aloe vera juice is well tolerated by most individuals and has favorable effects upon a number of gastrointestinal parameters. A discussion of the potential role of Aloe vera juice on inflammatory bowel disorders based upon this work is presented.
1985Prevention Of Atheromatous Heart DiseaseO.P. Agarwal, M.D.Angiology, Vol 36, No. 8Five thousand patients of atheromatous heart disease, presented as angina pectoris, were studied over a period of five years. After adding the Husk of Isabgol and Aloe vera (an indigenous plant known as ghee-guar-ka-paththa) to the diet, a marked reduction in total serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, fasting and post parandial blood sugar level in diabetic patients, total lipids and also increase in HDL were noted. Simultaneously the clinical profile of these patients showed reduction in the frequency of anginal attacks and gradually, the drugs, like verapamil, nifedipine, beta-blockers and nitrates, were tapered. The patients, most benefited, were diabetics (without adding any antidiabetic drug). The exact mechanism of the action of the above two substances is not known, but it appears, that probably they act by their high fiber contents. Both these substances need further evaluation. The most interesting aspect of the study was that no untoward side effect was noted and all the five thousand patients are surviving till date.
1985Report of the Analysis of "Aloe Vera" GelDr. M.P. BogaardUnisearch Limited 
1984Aloe in Cosmetics - Does it Do Anything?Ivan E. Danhof, Ph.D.Naturals 
1983Characterisation of Polysaccharides of Aloe barbadensis Miller: Part III - Structure of an Acidic OligosaccharideGaurhari Mandal, Rina Ghosh and Amalendu DasIndian Journal of Chemistry, Vol. 22B, No. 9 
1981Acute Oral Toxicity StudyT.E. MurthisonDawson Research Corporation 
1981Regiospecific Synthesis of 11-Decoxyanthracycline Antibiotics Starting with Aloe-EmodinJ. Alexander, D.L. Flynn, L.A. Mitscher and T. VeysogluTetrahendron Letters, Vol. 22, No. 38